§ 1030.4 Account disclosures. | Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2024)

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Regulation DD

(a) Delivery of account disclosures

See interpretation of 4(a) Delivery of account disclosures. in Supplement I

(1) Account opening

(i) General. A depository institution shall provide account disclosures to a consumer before an account is opened or a service is provided, whichever is earlier. An institution is deemed to have provided a service when a fee required to be disclosed is assessed. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, if the consumer is not present at the institution when the account is opened or the service is provided and has not already received the disclosures, the institution shall mail or deliver the disclosures no later than 10 business days after the account is opened or the service is provided, whichever is earlier.

(ii) Timing of electronic disclosures. If a consumer who is not present at the institution uses electronic means (for example, an Internet Web site) to open an account or request a service, the disclosures required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be provided before the account is opened or the service is provided.

(2) Requests.

See interpretation of 4(a)(2) Requests. in Supplement I

(i) A depository institution shall provide account disclosures to a consumer upon request. If a consumer who is not present at the institution makes a request, the institution shall mail or deliver the disclosures within a reasonable time after it receives the request and may provide the disclosures in paper form, or electronically if the consumer agrees.

1. Inquiries versus requests. A response to an oral inquiry (by telephone or in person) about rates and yields or fees does not trigger the duty to provide account disclosures. But when consumers ask for written information about an account (whether by telephone, in person, or by other means), the institution must provide disclosures unless the account is no longer offered to the public.

2. General requests. When responding to a consumer's general request for disclosures about a type of account (a NOW account, for example), an institution that offers several variations may provide disclosures for any one of them.

3. Timing for response. Ten business days is a reasonable time for responding to requests for account information that consumers do not make in person, including requests made by electronic means (such as by electronic mail).

4. Use of electronic means. If a consumer who is not present at the institution makes a request for account disclosures, including a request made by telephone, email, or via the institution's Web site, the institution may send the disclosures in paper form or, if the consumer agrees, may provide the disclosures electronically, such as to an email address that the consumer provides for that purpose, or on the institution's Web site, without regard to the consumer consent or other provisions of the E-Sign Act. The regulation does not require an institution to provide, nor a consumer to agree to receive, the disclosures required by §1030.4(a)(2) in electronic form.

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (a)(2)(i). in Supplement I

(ii) In providing disclosures upon request, the institution may:

(A) Specify an interest rate and annual percentage yield that were offered within the most recent seven calendar days; state that the rate and yield are accurate as of an identified date; and provide a telephone number consumers may call to obtain current rate information.

1. Recent rates. Institutions comply with this paragraph if they disclose an interest rate and annual percentage yield accurate within the seven calendar days preceding the date they send the disclosures.

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A). in Supplement I

(B) State the maturity of a time account as a term rather than a date.

1. Term. Describing the maturity of a time account as “1 year” or “6 months,” for example, illustrates a statement of the maturity of a time account as a term rather than a date (“January 10, 1995”).

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B). in Supplement I

(b) Content of account disclosures. Account disclosures shall include the following, as applicable:

See interpretation of 4(b) Content of account disclosures. in Supplement I

(1) Rate information

(i) Annual percentage yield and interest rate. The “annual percentage yield” and the “interest rate,” using those terms, and for fixed-rate accounts the period of time the interest rate will be in effect.

1. Rate disclosures. In addition to the interest rate and annual percentage yield, institutions may disclose a periodic rate corresponding to the interest rate. No other rate or yield (such as “tax effective yield”) is permitted. If the annual percentage yield is the same as the interest rate, institutions may disclose a single figure but must use both terms.

2. Fixed-rate accounts. For fixed-rate time accounts paying the opening rate until maturity, institutions may disclose the period of time the interest rate will be in effect by stating the maturity date. (See appendix B, B-7 - Sample Form.) For other fixed-rate accounts, institutions may use a date (“This rate will be in effect through May 4, 1995”) or a period (“This rate will be in effect for at least 30 days”).

3. Tiered-rate accounts. Each interest rate, along with the corresponding annual percentage yield for each specified balance level (or range of annual percentage yields, if appropriate), must be disclosed for tiered-rate accounts. (See appendix A, Part I, Paragraph D.)

4. Stepped-rate accounts. A single composite annual percentage yield must be disclosed for stepped-rate accounts. (See appendix A, Part I, Paragraph B.) The interest rates and the period of time each will be in effect also must be provided. When the initial rate offered for a specified time on a variable-rate account is higher or lower than the rate that would otherwise be paid on the account, the calculation of the annual percentage yield must be made as if for a stepped-rate account. (See appendix A, Part I, Paragraph C.)

See interpretation of 4(b)(1)(i) Annual percentage yield and interest rate. in Supplement I

(ii) Variable rates. For variable-rate accounts:

See interpretation of 4(b)(1)(ii) Variable rates. in Supplement I

(A) The fact that the interest rate and annual percentage yield may change;

(B) How the interest rate is determined;

1. Determining interest rates. To disclose how the interest rate is determined, institutions must:

i. Identify the index and specific margin, if the interest rate is tied to an index.

ii. State that rate changes are within the institution's discretion, if the institution does not tie changes to an index.

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B). in Supplement I

(C) The frequency with which the interest rate may change; and

1. Frequency of rate changes. An institution reserving the right to change rates at its discretion must state the fact that rates may change at any time.

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(C). in Supplement I

(D) Any limitation on the amount the interest rate may change.

1. Limitations. A floor or ceiling on rates or on the amount the rate may decrease or increase during any time period must be disclosed. Institutions need not disclose the absence of limitations on rate changes.

See interpretation of 4Paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(D). in Supplement I

(2) Compounding and crediting

See interpretation of 4(b)(2) Compounding and crediting. in Supplement I

(i) Frequency. The frequency with which interest is compounded and credited.

(ii) Effect of closing an account. If consumers will forfeit interest if they close the account before accrued interest is credited, a statement that interest will not be paid in such cases.

1. Deeming an account closed. An institution may, subject to state or other law, provide in its deposit contracts the actions by consumers that will be treated as closing the account and that will result in the forfeiture of accrued but uncredited interest. An example is the withdrawal of all funds from the account prior to the date that interest is credited.

See interpretation of 4(b)(2)(ii) Effect of closing an account. in Supplement I

(3) Balance information

See interpretation of 4(b)(3) Balance information. in Supplement I

(i) Minimum balance requirements.

(A) Any minimum balance required to:

(1) Open the account;

(2) Avoid the imposition of a fee; or

(3) Obtain the annual percentage yield disclosed.

(B) Except for the balance to open the account, the disclosure shall state how the balance is determined for these purposes.

(ii) Balance computation method. An explanation of the balance computation method specified in §1030.7 of this part used to calculate interest on the account.

1. Methods and periods. Institutions may use different methods or periods to calculate minimum balances for purposes of imposing a fee (the daily balance for a calendar month, for example) and accruing interest (the average daily balance for a statement period, for example). Each method and corresponding period must be disclosed.

See interpretation of 4(b)(3)(ii) Balance computation method. in Supplement I

(iii) When interest begins to accrue. A statement of when interest begins to accrue on noncash deposits.

1. Additional information. Institutions may disclose additional information such as the time of day after which deposits are treated as having been received the following business day, and may use additional descriptive terms such as “ledger” or “collected” balances to disclose when interest begins to accrue.

See interpretation of 4(b)(3)(iii) When interest begins to accrue. in Supplement I

(4) Fees. The amount of any fee that may be imposed in connection with the account (or an explanation of how the fee will be determined) and the conditions under which the fee may be imposed.

1. Covered fees. The following are types of fees that must be disclosed:

i. Maintenance fees, such as monthly service fees.

ii. Fees to open or to close an account.

iii. Fees related to deposits or withdrawals, such as fees for use of the institution's ATMs.

iv. Fees for special services, such as stop-payment fees, fees for balance inquiries or verification of deposits, fees associated with checks returned unpaid, and fees for regularly sending to consumers checks that otherwise would be held by the institution.

2. Other fees. Institutions need not disclose fees such as the following:

i. Fees for services offered to account and nonaccount holders alike, such as travelers checks and wire transfers (even if different amounts are charged to account and nonaccount holders).

ii. Incidental fees, such as fees associated with state escheat laws, garnishment or attorneys fees, and fees for photocopying.

3. Amount of fees. Institutions must state the amount and conditions under which a fee may be imposed. Naming and describing the fee (such as “$4.00 monthly service fee”) will typically satisfy these requirements.

4. Tied-accounts. Institutions must state if fees that may be assessed against an account are tied to other accounts at the institution. For example, if an institution ties the fees payable on a NOW account to balances held in the NOW account and a savings account, the NOW account disclosures must state that fact and explain how the fee is determined.

5. Fees for overdrawing an account. Under §1030.4(b)(4) of this part, institutions must disclose the conditions under which a fee may be imposed. In satisfying this requirement institutions must specify the categories of transactions for which an overdraft fee may be imposed. An exhaustive list of transactions is not required. It is sufficient for an institution to state that the fee applies to overdrafts “created by check, in-person withdrawal, ATM withdrawal, or other electronic means,” as applicable. Disclosing a fee “for overdraft items” would not be sufficient.

See interpretation of 4(b)(4) Fees. in Supplement I

(5) Transaction limitations. Any limitations on the number or dollar amount of withdrawals or deposits.

1. General rule. Examples of limitations on the number or dollar amount of deposits or withdrawals that institutions must disclose are:

i. Limits on the number of checks that may be written on an account within a given time period.

ii. Limits on withdrawals or deposits during the term of a time account.

iii. Limitations required by Regulation D of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (12 CFR part 204) on the number of withdrawals permitted from money market deposit accounts by check to third parties each month. Institutions need not disclose reservations of right to require notices for withdrawals from accounts required by federal or state law.

See interpretation of 4(b)(5) Transaction limitations. in Supplement I

(6) Features of time accounts. For time accounts:

See interpretation of 4(b)(6) Features of time accounts. in Supplement I

(i) Time requirements. The maturity date.

1. “Callable” time accounts. In addition to the maturity date, an institution must state the date or the circumstances under which it may redeem a time account at the institution's option (a “callable” time account).

See interpretation of 4(b)(6)(i) Time requirements. in Supplement I

(ii) Early withdrawal penalties. A statement that a penalty will or may be imposed for early withdrawal, how it is calculated, and the conditions for its assessment.

1. General. The term “penalty” may but need not be used to describe the loss of interest that consumers may incur for early withdrawal of funds from time accounts.

2. Examples. Examples of early withdrawal penalties are:

i. Monetary penalties, such as “$10.00” or “seven days' interest plus accrued but uncredited interest.”

ii. Adverse changes to terms such as a lowering of the interest rate, annual percentage yield, or compounding frequency for funds remaining on deposit.

iii. Reclamation of bonuses.

3. Relation to rules for IRAs or similar plans. Penalties imposed by the Internal Revenue Code for certain withdrawals from IRAs or similar pension or savings plans are not early withdrawal penalties for purposes of this part.

4. Disclosing penalties. Penalties may be stated in months, whether institutions assess the penalty using the actual number of days during the period or using another method such as a number of days that occurs in any actual sequence of the total calendar months involved. For example, stating “one month's interest” is permissible, whether the institution assesses 30 days' interest during the month of April, or selects a time period between 28 and 31 days for calculating the interest for all early withdrawals regardless of when the penalty is assessed.

See interpretation of 4(b)(6)(ii) Early withdrawal penalties. in Supplement I

(iii) Withdrawal of interest prior to maturity. If compounding occurs during the term and interest may be withdrawn prior to maturity, a statement that the annual percentage yield assumes interest remains on deposit until maturity and that a withdrawal will reduce earnings. For accounts with a stated maturity greater than one year that do not compound interest on an annual or more frequent basis, that require interest payouts at least annually, and that disclose an APY determined in accordance with section E of appendix A of this part, a statement that interest cannot remain on deposit and that payout of interest is mandatory.

(iv) Renewal policies. A statement of whether or not the account will renew automatically at maturity. If it will, a statement of whether or not a grace period will be provided and, if so, the length of that period must be stated. If the account will not renew automatically, a statement of whether interest will be paid after maturity if the consumer does not renew the account must be stated.

1. Rollover time accounts. Institutions offering a grace period on time accounts that automatically renew need not state whether interest will be paid if the funds are withdrawn during the grace period.

2. Nonrollover time accounts. Institutions paying interest on funds following the maturity of time accounts that do not renew automatically need not state the rate (or annual percentage yield) that may be paid. (See appendix B, Model Clause B-1(h)(iv)(2).)

See interpretation of 4(b)(6)(iv) Renewal policies. in Supplement I

(7) Bonuses. The amount or type of any bonus, when the bonus will be provided, and any minimum balance and time requirements to obtain the bonus.

(c) Notice to existing account holders

(1) Notice of availability of disclosures. Depository institutions shall provide a notice to consumers who receive periodic statements and who hold existing accounts of the type offered by the institution on June 21, 1993. The notice shall be included on or with the first periodic statement sent on or after June 21, 1993 (or on or with the first periodic statement for a statement cycle beginning on or after that date). The notice shall state that consumers may request account disclosures containing terms, fees, and rate information for their account. In responding to such a request, institutions shall provide disclosures in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Alternative to notice. As an alternative to the notice described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, institutions may provide account disclosures to consumers. The disclosures may be provided either with a periodic statement or separately, but must be sent no later than when the periodic statement described in paragraph (c)(1) is sent.

I'm an expert with a deep understanding of financial regulations, specifically Regulation DD, which governs the disclosure of terms, fees, and rate information related to consumer accounts in depository institutions. My knowledge extends to the nuances of account opening procedures, electronic disclosures, requests for information, and the specific content required in account disclosures.

Now, let's delve into the concepts outlined in the provided article:

Regulation DD Overview:

(a) Delivery of Account Disclosures:

  1. Account Opening:

    • Disclosures must be provided to consumers before an account is opened or a service is provided.
    • If the consumer is not present, disclosures must be mailed or delivered within 10 business days.
  2. Timing of Electronic Disclosures:

    • For electronic account opening, disclosures must precede the account opening or service provision.

(b) Content of Account Disclosures:

  1. Rate Information:

    • Annual Percentage Yield (APY) and interest rate must be disclosed.
    • Fixed-rate accounts specify the period of the interest rate.
    • Tiered-rate accounts disclose rates for specified balance levels.
  2. Variable Rates:

    • Disclose potential changes in interest rate and APY.
    • Include how the rate is determined, change frequency, and any limitations on rate changes.
  3. Compounding and Crediting:

    • Disclose the frequency of interest compounding and crediting.
    • Specify conditions under which interest may be forfeited upon account closure.
  4. Balance Information:

    • Minimum balance requirements for account opening, fee avoidance, and disclosed APY.
    • Explain the balance computation method.
  5. Fees:

    • Disclose fees for maintenance, account opening/closing, deposits/withdrawals, and other services.
    • Specify amounts and conditions for fee imposition.
  6. Transaction Limitations:

    • Disclose restrictions on the number or amount of withdrawals/deposits.
  7. Features of Time Accounts:

    • Specify time requirements, maturity date, and penalties for early withdrawal.
    • State whether interest can be withdrawn before maturity.

(c) Notice to Existing Account Holders:

  1. Notice of Availability:

    • Institutions must notify existing account holders of the availability of disclosures.
    • The notice must be provided on or with the first periodic statement after June 21, 1993.
  2. Alternative to Notice:

    • Institutions can alternatively provide account disclosures with periodic statements.

In summary, Regulation DD ensures transparency in financial dealings by mandating clear and timely disclosure of account terms, fees, and rate information to consumers. This regulation aims to empower consumers with the knowledge they need to make informed decisions about their financial accounts.

§ 1030.4   Account disclosures. | Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2024)
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